It’s not unusual that a pathway is needed over ground that is sloped. You might ask yourself just how steep of a pitch can I make the walk. You might also be considering steps as part of your solution.
Let me first suggest tell you that you need to measure the elevations (vertical heights) in the area your designing your walk and/or steps. Grades & pitch can be very deceptive. Even after 30 years experience I will not “go by eye” on this one. It’s suggested that the maximum slope for walks be 10%. Or, in other words, 12″ of rise over 10′ of walk.
In my opinion, walks should not exceed a 5% slope (or 12″ of rise over 20′ of walk). Often it comes down to personal preference. So if you’re building this walk for someone, make sure they understand what you’re proposing. More on how to show them your idea(s) in a bit.
In the first picture the walkway seems to be pitched around 12″ over 10′ of walk (or 10%). The entrance to this walkway (2nd picture) appears to be even steeper.
Now here I am telling you to always measure elevations and I can’t give you the specifics on this walk. That’s because it’s not my project and I didn’t want to get arrested for trespassing. (I’m losing my sense of adventure.)
With exact elevation measurements you can calculate your different design concepts and compare them to one another.
You can always first consider some “creative” re-grading, but often “steps” are the best way to mitigate a steep walkway.
Seeing Is Believing
Most people have a hard time visualizing things. I use mock-ups of all kinds to help others and myself really see what’s planned and possible.
I’ll sometimes illustrate an idea for a walkway and/or steps using stakes and a string line. When set up exactly at the proposed heights, they show the profile of the walk’s surface (pitch) and the risers & treads of the steps. This let’s the homeowner (and myself) see how it will potentially look. I find that this simple mock-up always clears up any uncertainty and prevents any design regrets after construction.
- Do not compromise on the base for the steps. If they are masonry steps you should have a concrete footing according to local code. If they are dry-set steps (stone, cast concrete or timber) you should have a well-compacted aggregate base. Nothing is worse than steps that “move” over time because of poor base and footing work.
- For landscape steps the riser should be greater than 4″, but no more than 6 ½”. There are always going to be exceptions, but try to stay within these parameters.
- Here’s a simple formula for calculating the riser height and tread length: 2 (riser) + tread = 26″. For example, if the riser is going to be 6″, then : 2 (6) + 14 = 26″. So the tread should be 14″. Again, use this as a “guideline”.
- Where steps return into the surrounding sloped grade, make sure the step has “finished” sides that are nice to look at. On the same note, make sure the sloped sides of earth are stabilized to support & conceal the base work for the steps. Groundcover, grass and even decorative boulders can help with this.
Planning landscape steps and walks really supports the idea that form should follow function. And yet personal preference always plays a part in the final solution. What say you? Feel free to comment.